Bartter syndrome type IV is a genetic condition that impacts the kidneys' ability to reabsorb salt (sodium chloride). This can lead to an excessive loss of salt in the urine and an imbalance of potassium and calcium in the body. Symptoms include early-onset kidney disease, hearing loss, failure to thrive (poor growth and weight gain ) close bracket here and increased urine production. Symptoms can also include dehydration, constipation, hardening of kidney tissues, weakening of bones and muscles, cramping and fatigue.
In some cases, called neonatal Bartter syndrome type IV, the condition can present before birth, leading to a premature birth associated with increased fluid surrounding the fetus and low birth weight. Treatment focuses on correction of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
As humans we have about 23,000 genes. These genes are like tiny instruction manuals that influence our health, growth and development. We inherit half of our genes from our biological mum and the other half from our biological dad. These genes are lined up on structures called chromosomes. Most of us have 23 pairs of chromosomes. The first 22 pairs are called autosomes and for the most part - these are the same among men and women. The 23rd pair determine our sex - two X chromosomes for a female and one X and one Y chromosome for males.
Bartter syndrome type IV is known as an autosomal recessive condition. For autosomal recessive conditions, if a person has a variation in one copy of their gene, they are a carrier. This means that they are healthy because they also have a working copy of the gene. But, they can still pass their non-working copy to their child.
If the other parent also happens to be a carrier of the same gene, there is a 25% (1 in 4) chance that they both pass this gene variation on to their child — and as such, have a child affected by the disease.
If both parents are carriers of Bartter syndrome type IV, there’s a one in four chance that their children could develop symptoms.
Carrier testing is like a checkup for your genes. It tests to see if you carry a gene variation that could cause a serious genetic disease in your child. Eugene offers an inclusive genetic carrier screening panel that includes Bartter syndrome type IV, but there's a total 301 conditions that can be tested.
Eugene’s carrier test is a clinical grade test that can be done from the comfort of your own home — it’s just a saliva test. You're also paired with a genetic counsellor who provides mindful support and guidance every step of the way.Learn more about carrier screening
The biggest benefit of screening for Bartter syndrome type IV is that it can help future parents understand their reproductive risk so they can be ready and empowered to make more informed decisions. If neither partner are carriers, it provides reassurance and peace of mind that the risk of having a child with a genetic disease is low.
Since 90% of children that have a recessive genetic disease like Bartter syndrome type IV had no previous family history of it, it often feels completely out of the blue for the parents. Getting screened is a way to know this risk in advance, which can help familes manage or even prevent the disease in the first place.